Coughs & Colds

Common Coughs And Colds

Coughs and colds are common in children. On the average, a child suffers from a cold or cough 6 to 12 times a year. The frequent occurrence of these illnesses puts parents in a dilemma. Many wonder if they should take their child to the doctor or treat him with remedies that are easily available at pharmacies.

Pharmacists explain what drugs are used to treat these ailments and their uses.

The common cold is caused by viruses and the symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, coughing, sore throat, flushed cheeks, poor appetite, grumpiness, aches, fatigue and fever.

Common colds are self-limited. This means that your child will be able to mount an attack against the virus and eliminate the infection.

How long a cold lasts depends on the child's age and his body's resistance. It is usual for a cold to last several weeks in an infant but only 4 - 5 days in an adolescent.

Since colds are spread through contact with cold sufferers, the only means to prevent the spread of a cold is to isolate the affected individual. However, by the time a cold is detected, the virus has already been transmitted to others.

There are no curative remedies for colds. Drugs help relieve the symptoms while the cold runs its course and the body's defences remove the viral invaders and repair the damage. Coughs and colds in children are rarely serious.

Almost all cough and cold drugs are available over-the-counter (OTC) without a doctor's prescription. OTC drugs generally specify dosages for children from 2 years old. It is necessary to consult your doctor or pharmacist for infant and toddler dosages.

Common OTC drugs available are decongestants, antihistamines, cough suppressants (antitussives), expectorants and antipyretics.

Decongestants

Decongestants shrink the blood vessels (or decongest them) in the nose, reducing the swelling and allowing easier breathing.

Decongestants are available in nasal sprays, tablets or nose drops. The drugs take effect in the first 1 - 2 hours and the effects last up to 12 hours.

Nasal decongestants, in nose drop or spray forms, work more quickly and produce fewer side effects in the child.

Once the medication wears off, nasal congestion often returns and becomes more severe than before (this is termed the rebound effect). As a result, the drug may need to be used more frequently to achieve the same effect. However, this may cause your child to be addicted to the nasal spray as the dosage is increased.

To prevent the rebound effect, use the spray for 2 - 3 days and then allow the nose to "rest" for the next 2 - 3 days before using the spray again.

Nasal drops are most effective in children under 6 years old than nasal sprays, as more medicine reaches their noses this way since their nostrils are small.

Older children find it more convenient to use nasal sprays as nasal drops tend to flow directly into their throats.

Oral decongestants may cause a child to be more active. A decrease in appetite may also occur.

Decongestants for infants should only be used under the doctor's recommendation.

Antihistamines

Antihistamines help to relieve blocked and runny noses as they dry up the nasal secretion.

Some antihistamines such as diphenhydramine and promethazine act directly on the cough centre in the brain to suppress the cough. They also partially numb the back of the throat and relieve the tickle that brings on the cough.

Antihistamines cause most children to be drowsy and listless. However, some children have a paradoxical reaction to the drugs; that is, they become more active, have difficulty in falling asleep and experience nervousness.

Anthihistamines are usually prescribed together with decongestants as the latter will counteract the drowsiness caused by antihistamines.

Cough Suppressants (Antitussives)

There are effective for dry, hacking cough only. Codeine is particularly useful for the dry cough that persists after a cold and for coughing spells that result from a ticklish throat.

However, codeine is not suitable for children below the age of 2 years as it may cause breathing difficulties if used excessively.

Cough suppressants reduce the urge to cough by blocking the cough centre in the brain.

It is preferable to try other drugs such as antihistamines first before using cough suppressants. They are usually not recommended if your child has phlegm.

Expectorants

There are used for wet coughs or coughs with phlegm because expectorants thin out the phlegm, making it easier for your child to cough it out. Warm water is the best expectorant. Give your child about 6 to 8 glasses of water a day.

Steam inhalation or vapouriser also helps as the warm inhaled air loosens the phlegm, enabling your child to cough it out.

Antipyretics

Common types of antipyretics such as aspirin and paracetamol help to reduce fever and relieve headaches.

Aspirin should not be given to children under 18 years old for colds or the flu. This is because aspirin has been associated with causing Reye's Syndrome in children with viral infection. This condition, through rare, affects the brain, liver and kidneys.

Consulting Your Doctor

Complications such as swelling or infection of the middle ear and pneumonia may arise if the cough or cold is persistent and occurs frequently. Consult your doctor if your child exhibits the following signs or symptoms :

  • He tugs at his ear
  • He develops a rash
  • He complains of earache or deafness
  • He has thick greenish-yellow nasal mucus
  • He has a persistent cough for one week despite medication
  • He has a cough which becomes worse in intensity and frequency
  • He has bloody sputum or stool
  • He develops a fever (38.5ºC or above)
  • His fever persists for 2 days or subsides and returns a few days later

Seek medical advice immediately if your child has difficulty in breathing or breathes rapidly, suffers seizures, is irritable, lethargic or complains of a stiff neck.

All these would indicate that your child is suffering from the more severe form of the illness or is suffering an infection.

A Final Word

Use OTC drugs conservatively. Many cough and cold medications have exaggerated and sometimes, paradoxical effects on children. Most coughs and colds clear up without any treatment. Many non-drug approaches such as adequate fluid intake, a well-balanced diet and keeping away from air-conditioned areas provide equal or better relief from the symptoms compared to drugs.

Always consult your doctor or the pharmacist when in doubt before administering any OTC drugs.

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