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Clin Assoc Prof Matthias Gotthard Maiwald

Clin Assoc Prof Maiwald Matthias Gotthard

​MD, FRCPA

Senior Consultant

Head, Microbiology Service & Senior Consultant (Microbiology)

KK Women's and Children's Hospital

Specialty: Pathology & Laboratory Medicine

Sub-specialties: Microbiology

Clinical Appointments

  • Senior Consultant Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine KK Women's and Children's HospitalKK Women's and Children's Hospital

Profile

Adj Assoc Prof Matthias Maiwald is a Senior Consultant and the Head of Service, Microbiology, at KK Women's and Children's Hospital, and an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National University of Singapore, and at Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. He graduated with an MD from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. He previously worked at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, subsequently at Stanford University, USA, and subsequently at Flinders University in Adelaide, Australia. He holds a German board certification in medical microbiology, a Fellowship of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, and is a Diplomate of the American Board of Medical Microbiology. He has three main areas of interest, microbiological aspects relevant to women’s and children’s health, molecular detection and characterization of fastidious and emerging pathogens, and infection control with an emphasis on hand hygiene and skin antisepsis. He has a publication record of more than 120 articles, including journal articles and medical textbooks chapters.

Education

  • FFSc(RCPA), Fellow, Faculty of Science, Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia 2011
  • D(ABMM), American Board of Medical Microbiology 2004
  • FRCPA, Fellowship of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia 2003
  • Habilitation, University of Heidelberg, Germany 1997
  • Specialist qualification (Board Certification) in Medical Microbiology, Medical Board of Germany 1995
  • Medical doctorate (Dr. med.), University of Heidelberg, Germany 1987
  • MD, University of Heidelberg School of Medicine, Germany 1987

Professional Appointments and Committee Memberships

Professional Appointments
  • Head, Microbiology Service, KKH Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2018 – present
  • Senior Consultant in Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2014 – present
  • Consultant in Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2009 – 2014
  • Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore 2010 – present
  • Adjunct Associate Professor, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore 2011 – present
  • Director of Microbiology, Royal Darwin Hospital, Associate Professor, Flinders University School of Medicine and Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Australia 2008 – 2009
  • Associate Professor and Consultant in Microbiology, Flinders University and Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, Australia 2004 – 2008
  • Microbiology Registrar at the Microbiology Department, Royal Women's and Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia 2003 – 2004
  • Microbiology Registrar at the Microbiology Department, Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology, Brisbane, Australia 2002 – 2003
  • Research Fellow at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, CA, USA 1998 – 2002
  • Clinical Microbiologist, Academic Lecturer and Staff Scientist at the Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, University of Heidelberg, Germany 1987 – 1998

Memberships in Committees

  • Member, Technical Expert Group on hand hygiene by the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, Switzerland 2017 – present
  • Member, Singapore Ministry of Health (MOH) National Antimicrobial Resistance Control Committee (NARCC), National Antimicrobial Resistance Expert Panel (NAREP), Singapore 2018 – present
  • Member, Pharmacy & Therapeutic (PT) Committee, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 2018 – present
  • Member, Point Of Care Testing (POCT) Committee, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 2018 – present
  • Member, Human Milk Bank Work Group, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 2016 – present
  • Member, Genetic Modification Advisory Committee of Singapore (GMAC), Subcommittee for Release of Agriculture-Related Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) 2014 – present
  • Patient Safety Lead, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 2014 – present
  • Member, Serious Reportable Events (SRE) Quality Assurance Committee, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 2011 – present
  • Member of the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC), KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 2010 – present
  • Contributing Faculty Member for the internet-based literature service "Faculty of 1000" (http://www.facultyof1000.com) 2004 – present

Memberships in Societies

  • Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases (ASID) 2014 – present
  • German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) 1990-present
  • American Society for Microbiology (ASM) 1990 – present
  • International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) 1994 – present
  • German speaking Mycological Society (DMykG) 1994 – present
  • German Society of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Specialists (BÄMI) 1995 – present
  • German Association of University Lecturers (DHV) 1997 – present
  • Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) 2003 – present
  • Australian Society for Microbiology (ASM) 2007 – present
  • Singapore Society of Pathology (SSP) 2010 – present
  • Society of Infectious Diseases (Singapore) (SIDS) 2013 – present

Awards

Grants
  • SingHealth Foundation (SHF) Research Grant: Molecular diagnostic and genomic assessment of Bordetella species and strain variants causing pertussis and pertussis-like disease in Singapore. 2017 – 2020
  • Grant by the Wellcome Trust: Genome sequence of the enigmatic, fastidious, actinomycete associated with Whipple's disease: Tropheryma whippelii. 2001 – 2003
  • Grant by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): Molecular characterization of a currently uncultivated bacterium that is pathogenic for humans, using the Whipple's disease bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii) as a model. 1998 – 1999
  • Grant by the Research Commission of the University of Heidelberg Medical Center: Transmission risk of Borrelia burgdorferi after tick bite. 1996 – 1998
  • Grant by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG): Molecular characterization and occurrence of the Whipple's disease bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii). 1994 – 1996
Awards
  • BioMérieux Diagnostics award 1996
  • Best Poster Prize, "Multi-Disciplinary", 6th Ann. Sci. Meeting, KK Women's and Children's Hospital 2011

Research Interests

  • Microbiological aspects relevant to women's and children's health
  • Molecular detection and characterization of fastidious and emerging pathogens
  • Infection control, with an emphasis on hand hygiene and skin antisepsis

Publications

Publications in Peer-Reviewed Journals (selected)
  • Chan JC, Chong CY, Thoon KC, Tee NWS, Maiwald M, Lam JCM, Bhattacharya R, Chandran S, Yung CF, Tan NWH. Invasive paediatric Elizabethkingia meningoseptica infections are best treated with a combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or fluoroquinolone. J Med Microbiol 2019; 68:1167-72.
  • Josman N, Tee NWS, Maiwald M, Loo LH, Ho CKM. Pragmatic and evidence-based approach to paediatric cerebrospinal fluid reference limits for white cell count and concentrations of total protein and glucose. J Clin Pathol 2018; 71: 932-5.
  • Yung CF, Maiwald M, Loo LH, Soong HY, Tan CB, Lim PK, Li L, Tan NW, Chong CY, Tee N, Thoon KC, Chan YH. Elizabethkingia anophelis and association with tap water and handwashing, Singapore. Emerg Infect Dis 2018; 24: 1730-3.
  • Loo LH, Soong HY, Maiwald M, Tee NWS. Assessment of genotypic macrolide resistance among Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in children in Singapore (Research Letter). Ann Acad Med Singapore 2017; 46: 290-2.
  • Maiwald M, Widmer AF. WHO's recommendation for surgical skin antisepsis is premature (Research Letter). Lancet Infect Dis 2017; 17: 1023-4.
  • Vemula VM, Li L, Thoon KC, Chong CY, Tee NWS, Maiwald M, Tan NWH. Risk factors and clinical profile of measles infection in children in Singapore. Infection, Disease & Health 2016; 21: 192-196.
  • Wee LYJ, Tanugroho RR, Thoon KC, Chong CY, Choong CT, Krishnamoorthy S, Maiwald M, Tee NWS, Tan NWH. A 15-year retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in childhood bacterial meningitis. Acta Paediatr. 2016; 105 (1) e22-e29.
  • Seah XFV, Ngeow JHA, Thoon KC, Tee WSN, Maiwald M, Chong CY, Tan NWH. Infant with invasive nontyphoidal salmonellosis and mastitis. Global Pediatric Health 2015; 2: 2333794X15591568.
  • Rajkumar V, Chiang CSM, Low JM, Cui L, Lin RTP, Tee NWS, Maiwald M, Chong CY, Thoon KC, Tan NWH. Risk factors for severe adenovirus infection in children during an outbreak in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2015; 44: 50-9.
  • Maiwald M, Chan ESY. Pitfalls in evidence assessment: the case of chlorhexidine and alcohol in skin antisepsis (Leading Article). J Antimicrob Chemother 2014; 69: 2017-21.
  • Maiwald M, Chan ESY. The forgotten role of alcohol: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy and perceived role of chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis. PLoS ONE 2012; 7 (9): e44277.
  • Khalafallah A, Maiwald M, Hannan T, Abell S, Staker J, Supperamohan A. Early implementation of antifungal therapy in the management of febrile neutropenia is associated with favourable outcome during induction chemotherapy for acute leukaemias. Intern Med J 2012; 42: 131-136.
  • Jordan D, Simon J, Fury S, Moss S, Giffard P, Maiwald M, Southwell P, Barton MD, Axon JE, Morris SG, Trott DJ. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by veterinarians in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal 2011; 89: 152-159.
  • Anstey JR, Fazio TN, Gordon DL, Hogg G, Jenney AW, Maiwald M, Wilksch JJ. Community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscesses - an "emerging disease" in Australia. Med J Aust. 2010; 193: 543-545.
  • Khalafallah A, Maiwald M, Cox A, Burns D, Bates G, Hannan T, Seaton D, Fernandopulle B, Meagher D, Brain T. Effect of immunoglobulin therapy on the rate of infections in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation or treated with immunomodulatory agents. Medit J Hematol Infect Dis 2010; 2 (1): e2010005.
  • Maiwald M. Update on Whipple’s disease and Tropheryma whipplei. Clin Microbiol Newslett 2006; 28: 177-184.
  • Maiwald M, von Herbay A, Fredricks DN, Ouverney CC, Kosek JC, Relman DA. Cultivation of Tropheryma whipplei from cerebrospinal fluid. J Infect Dis 2003; 188: 801-808. Editorial to the article: Scheld WM. J Infect Dis 2003; 188: 797-800. See also: Photo on the cover page of the journal.
  • Maiwald M, Lepp PW, Relman DA. Analysis of conserved non-rRNA genes of Tropheryma whipplei. Syst Appl Microbiol 2003; 26: 3-12.
  • Bentley SD, Maiwald M, Murphy LD, Pallen MJ, Yeats CA, Dover L, Norbertczak HT, Besra GS, Quail MA, Harris DE, von Herbay A, Goble A, Rutter S, Squares R, Squares S, Barrell BG, Parkhill J, Relman DA. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of the Whipple’s disease bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. Lancet 2003; 361: 637-644. Editorial to the article: Schaffner A, Schneemann M. Lancet 2003; 361: 632.
  • Maiwald M, Relman DA. Whipple's disease and Tropheryma whippelii: secrets slowly revealed. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 457-463.
  • Maiwald M, von Herbay A, Persing DH, Mitchell PS, Abdelmalek MF, Thorvilson JN, Fredricks DN, Relman DA. Tropheryma whippelii DNA is rare in the intestinal mucosa of patients without other evidence of Whipple disease. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 115-119.
  • Rudi J, Kuck D, Rudy A, Sieg A, Maiwald M, Stremmel W. Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes and cagA gene in a series of 383 H. pylori positive patients. Z Gastroenterol 2000; 38: 559-564.
  • Maiwald M, von Herbay A, Lepp PW, Relman DA. Organization, structure, and variability of the rRNA operon of the Whipple's disease bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii). J Bacteriol 2000; 182: 3292-3297.
  • Lieb K, Maiwald M, Berger M, Voderholzer U. Insomnia for 5 years (case report). Lancet 1999; 354: 1966.
  • Helbig JH, Engelstädter T, Maiwald M, Uldum SA, Witzleb W, Lück PC. Diagnostic relevance of the detection of Legionella DNA in urine samples by the polymerase chain reaction. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1999; 18: 716-722.
  • Rudi J, Rudy A, Maiwald M, Kuck D, Sieg A, Stremmel W. Direct determination of Helicobacter pylori vacA genotypes and cagA gene in gastric biopsies and relationship to gastrointestinal diseases. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94: 1525-1531.
  • Köhler J, Maiwald M, Lück PC, Helbig JH, Hingst V, Sonntag HG. Prevalence of legionellae in the water systems of a hospital complex and detection of infections by unselected culturing of respiratory tract secretions. J Hosp Infect 1999; 41: 301-311.
  • Rudi J, Rudy A, Maiwald M, Stremmel W. Helicobacter sp. are not detectable in bile from German patients with biliary disease. Gastroenterology 1999; 116: 1016-1017.
  • Hassler D, Maiwald M, Petney TN. Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease (letter). JAMA 1998; 280: 1049-1050.
  • Kappe R, Okeke CN, Fauser C, Maiwald M, Sonntag HG. Molecular probes for the detection of pathogenic fungi in the presence of human tissue. J Med Microbiol 1998; 47: 811-820.
  • Maiwald M, Oehme R, March O, Petney TN, Kimmig P, Naser K, Zappe HA, Hassler D, von Knebel Doeberitz M. Transmission risk of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in southwest Germany. Epidemiol Infect 1998; 121: 103-108.
  • Kaiser R, and the Participants of an Expert Committee* [Tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme borreliosis - prevention before and after tick bite]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1998; 123: 847-853. *Coauthor as Participant of the Expert Committee.
  • Maiwald M, Helbig JH, Lück PC. Laboratory methods for the diagnosis of Legionella infections. J Microbiol Methods 1998; 33: 59-79.
  • Möhler M, Kosa R, Maiwald M, Galle PR, Stremmel W. [43-year-old patient with unclear undulating fever and abdominal pain]. Internist 1998; 39: 303-307.
  • Rudi J, Kolb C, Maiwald M, Kuck D, Sieg A, Galle PR, Stremmel W. Diversity of Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes and relationship to VacA and CagA protein expression, cytotoxin production, and associated diseases. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36: 944-948.
  • Grau AJ, Buggle F, Becher H, Zimmermann E, Spiel M, Fent T, Maiwald M, Werle E, Zorn M, Hengel H, Hacke W. Recent bacterial and viral infection is a risk factor for cerebrovascular ischemia. Clinical and biochemical studies. Neurology 1998; 50: 196-203.
  • Maiwald M, Schuhmacher F, Ditton HJ, von Herbay A. Environmental occurrence of the Whipple's disease bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii). Appl Environ Microbiol 1998; 64: 760-762.
  • Rudi J, Kolb C, Maiwald M, Zuna I, von Herbay A, Galle PR, Stremmel W. Serum antibodies against Helicobacter pylori proteins VacA and CagA are associated with increased risk for gastric adenocarcinoma. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42: 1652-1659.
  • von Herbay A, Ditton HJ, Schuhmacher F, Maiwald M. Whipple's disease: Staging and monitoring by cytology and polymerase chain reaction analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Gastroenterology 1997; 113: 434-441. Editorial to the paper: Brasitus TA. Whipple's disease revisited. Gastroenterology, 1997; 113: 371. See also: Photo on the cover page of the journal.
  • Bock M, Nickel P, Maiwald M, Kappe R, Näher H. [Detection of dermatophytes by polymerase chain reaction]. Hautarzt 1997; 48: 175-180.
  • von Herbay A, Otto HF, Stolte M, Borchard F, Kirchner T, Ditton HJ, Maiwald M. Epidemiology of Whipple's disease in Germany. Analysis of 110 patients diagnosed in 1965-95. Scand J Gastroenterol 1997; 32: 52-57.
  • von Herbay A, Maiwald M, Ditton HJ, Otto HF. Histology of intestinal Whipple's disease revisited. A study of 48 patients. Virchows Arch 1996; 429: 335-343.

Other Publications (selected)
  • Maiwald M. Skin antiseptics in venous puncture site disinfection for preventing blood culture contamination: A Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (Letter to the Editor). Int. J. Nurs. Stud 2017; 75, 91-92.
  • Maiwald M. Skin preparation for prevention of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial (Letter to the Editor). Obstet Gynecol 2017; 129: 750-1.
  • Maiwald M, Assam PN, Chan ESY, Dancer JS. Chlorhexidine’s role in skin antisepsis: questioning the evidence (Letter to the Editor). Lancet 2014; 384: 1344-5.
  • Maiwald M, Loo LH, Tee NWS. Influenza virus infections: a brief overview of epidemiology and diagnostic modalities. Special Delivery 2014; 62 (Issue 06; Nov-Dec 2014): 6-8.
  • Harbarth S, Maiwald M, Dancer SJ. The environment and healthcare-acquired infections: why accurate reporting and evaluation of biological plausibility are important (Letter to the Editor). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013; 34: 996-7.
  • Maiwald M, Petney TN, Assam PN, Chan ESY. Use of statistics as another factor leading to an overestimation of chlorhexidine’s role in skin antisepsis (Letter to the Editor). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013; 34: 872-3.
  • Maiwald M. Chlorhexidine-alcohol compared with povidone-iodine for surgical-site antisepsis in cesarean deliveries (letter to the editor). Obstet Gynecol 2013; 121: 378-9.
  • Maiwald M. Technique is important for alcohol-based surgical hand antisepsis. Healthcare Infection 2012; 17: 106-107.
  • Maiwald M, Harrington K. Transfer of teaching materials between universities: where is the boundary between legitimate transaction and violation of moral intellectual property rights? Australian Universities’ Review 2012; 54 (2): 61-4.
  • Maiwald M. [Plagiarism of a different kind: transfer of teaching materials between universities in Australia]. Forschung und Lehre 2011; 18 (7): 538-9.
  • Maiwald M, Harrington K. Knowing and defending your moral intellectual property rights. NTEU Advocate 2011; 18 (1): 22-3.
  • Maiwald M, Widmer AF, Rotter ML. Lack of evidence for attributing chlorhexidine as the main active ingredient in skin antiseptics preventing surgical site infections. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011; 32: 404-5.
  • Maiwald M, Widmer AF, Rotter ML. Letter 2: Systematic review and meta-analysis of preoperative antisepsis with chlorhexidine versus povidone-iodine in clean-contaminated surgery (Br J Surg 2010; 97: 1614-1620). Br J Surg 2011; 98: 461-2.
  • Maiwald M, Widmer AF, Rotter ML. Chlorhexidine is not the main active ingredient in skin antiseptics that reduce blood culture contamination rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010; 31: 1095-1096.
  • Maiwald M. Systematic review of the efficacy of alcohol preparations and other agents for hand hygiene in the healthcare setting. Project report to the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Canberra ACT, Australia; 2009.
  • Maiwald M. Alcohol-based hand hygiene and nosocomial infection rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008; 29: 579-580.
  • Maiwald M, Widmer AF. Are alcohol gels better than liquid hand rubs? Crit Care 2007; 11: 418.
  • Maiwald M, Farmer CJM, Lance DG, Nieuwenhuijs VB, Heath CH, Watson DI, Gordon DL. Surgical antisepsis and the risk of operating theatre fires. ANZ J Surg 2006; 76: 422-423.
  • Hassler D, Maiwald M, von Herbay A. [Bacterium with camouflage: the genome of the pathogen of Whipple's disease has been decoded]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2003; 128: 655-6.
  • Maiwald M. New technologies for the culture-independent detection and identification of microorganisms. Microbiology Australia 2002; 23 (1): 21-23.
  • von Herbay A, Maiwald M. [Whipple's disease: current diagnosis and therapy]. Tips für die gastroenterologische Praxis 1999; 27 (2): 25-31.

Books and Book Chapters (selected)
  • Maiwald M, von Herbay A, Relman DA. Chapter 109: Whipple's disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ (editors). Sleisenger & Fordtran's gastrointestinal and liver disease. 11th edition. Saunders/Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA. In press.
  • Maiwald M, Relman DA. Chapter 28: Whipple’s disease. pp 461-73. In Scheld WM, Whitley RJ, Marra CM (editors). Infections of the central nervous system, 4th edition. Wolters Kluwer Health, Philadelphia; 2014.
  • Maiwald M, Widmer AF, Shaw D, Coventry BJ. Chapter 3: Surgical infection. pp. 107-132. In: Coventry BJ (ed.). General surgery risk reduction. Series: Surgery: complications, risks and consequences. Springer-Verlag, London; 2014.
  • Maiwald M, Relman DA. Tropheryma. pp. 717-726. In: Goodfellow M, Kämpfer P, Busse HJ, Trujillo ME, Suzuki KI, Ludwig W, Whitman WB (editors). Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Volume 5: The Actinobacteria, Part A. Springer-Verlag, New York; 2012.
  • Maiwald M. Nokardiose [Nocardiosis]. Chapter VIII-1.34. In: Hofmann F (editor). Handbuch der Infektionskrankheiten. 39th Update. Ecomed, Landsberg/Lech; 2011.
  • Maiwald M. Broad-range PCR for detection and identification of bacteria. pp. 491-505. In: Persing DH, Tenover FC, Tang YW, Nolte FS, Hayden RT, van Belkum A (eds.). Molecular microbiology: diagnostic principles and practice. 2nd edition. American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC; 2011.
  • Maiwald M. Tropheryma whipplei. pp. 380-386. In: Neumeister B, Geiss HK Braun RW, Kimmig P (editors). [Microbiological diagnostics]. 2nd edition. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart; 2009.
  • Grayson ML, Hunt C, Johnson P, Maiwald M, Martin R, McLaws ML. Chapter 14: Hand hygiene. pp. 259-75. In: Cruickshank M, Ferguson J (editors). Reducing harm to patients from health care associated infection: the role of surveillance. Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, Sydney; 2008.
  • Maiwald M. Enterokokken. [Enterococci]. pp. 277-281. In: Darai G, Handermann M, Sonntag HG, Zöller L (Eds.) Lexikon der Infektionskrankheiten des Menschen. 4th edition. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg; 2012.
  • Maiwald M. Nokardien. [Nocardiae]. pp. 617-620. In: Darai G, Handermann M, Sonntag HG, Zöller L (Eds.) Lexikon der Infektionskrankheiten des Menschen. 4th edition. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg; 2012.
  • Maiwald M. Tropheryma whipplei. pp. 380-386. In: Neumeister B, Geiss HK Braun RW, Kimmig P (editors). Mikrobiogische Diagnostik. [Microbiological diagnostics]. 2nd edition. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart; 2009.
  • Maiwald M. Tropheryma. pp. 998-1004. In: Borriello SP, Murray PR, Funke G (editors). Topley and Wilson's microbiology and microbial infections: bacteriology. 10th edition. Hodder Arnold Publishers, London; 2005.
  • von Herbay A, Maiwald M. Whipple disease. pp. 297-8. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia; 2003.

Research Trials

  • Molecular diagnostic and genomic assessment of Bordetella species and strain variants causing pertussis and pertussis-like disease in Singapore. 2017-2020